Reasoning skills are improved at different rates for different individuals. **Cognitive Abilities** to solve reason tests are good predictors of success in school. **Cognitive Test** does not measure such factors as effort, attention, motivation, and work habits, etc. **Cogat** is a reasoning skills test and not like English or a math test where if you know the answers or the facts you can get 100%. There is no defined curriculum for the *Cogat*. It is a norm-based test and the national average is 50th percentile. **Cogat Norms** are well-suited to help educators make important student placement decisions, such as selecting students for Gifted and Talented programs, exclusive features such as the Ability Profile Score can be used to expand the educational opportunities of all students.

**Cogat** **Test **measures students’ studied reasoning abilities in the 3 areas most linked to academic success in school:

- Verbal battery
- Quantitative battery
- Nonverbal battery

**1. Verbal battery**

The Verbal battery tests a student’s vocabulary, as well as his/her comprehensive ideas, efficiency and verbal memory, and ability to discover word relationships. Statistics show a high correlation between high verbal ability and success in a variety of school subjects. There are also 3 sub-tests conducted in the verbal battery. Each test has approximately 20 questions and the student is given 10 minutes to complete each sub-test. The below 3 sub-tests comprise the verbal **Cogat Composite Score**.

I. Verbal Classification

II. Sentence Completion

III. Verbal Analogies

**I. Verbal Classification**

In this category of questions, the student will face a list of 3 words that are similar in some way. The student is asked to choose a word, from an option of 5 words that is also similar category in the same way.

Example: Black blue white __

Options: color; crayon, paint, red, rainbow.

**II. Sentence Completion**

In this Cogat sub-test, the student will be given a sentence with a word left out and will be asked to select a word that makes the best sense in the sentence.

Example: Apples __ on trees.

Options: climb; grow; show; bloom; spread.

**III. Verbal Analogies**

In this sub-test, the student will be given 3 words in dark type. The first 2 words go together. The 3^{rd} word goes with one of the answer options. The student is asked to select the word that goes with the 3^{rd} word the same way that the 2^{nd} word goes with the 1^{st}.

Example: Fat (is to) Thin: wet (is to) ___

Options: rain; drip; cool; sun; dry.

**2. Quantitative Battery**

The Quantitative Battery measures quantitative reason solving skills; flexibility and fluency in working with quantitative symbols and concepts; and the ability to organize, structure, and making order to an unordered set of numerals and mathematical symbols. This Cogat Battery tests the student’s quantitative reasoning and problem solving ability and provides an appraisal of the student’s general level of abstract reasoning. 3 tests are administered in the quantitative battery. The 1^{st} test has 25 questions and students are given 8 minutes to finish. The 2^{nd} has 20 questions with a 10 minute testing time. The 3^{rd} has 15 questions with a 12 minute testing time. The below 3 types of sub-tests are given below.

I. Quantitative relations

II. Number series

III. Equation building

**I. Quantitative Relations**

In this sub-test, the student will be given 2 problems numbered 1 and 2 with three answer options. The student has to solve the 2 problems and determine if the answer is greater, less than, or equal to.

Example: 1. 0+6 2. 6+0

Options: a) 1 is greater than 5; b) 1 is less than 5; c) 1 is equal to 5.

**II. Number Series**

The student will be given a series of numbers and is asked to decide which number should come next in the series.

Example: 6; 12; 18; 24; ___

Options: 25; 30; 35; 40; 45.

**III. Equation Building**

The student will be given numbers and signs and will be asked to combine the numbers and signs to get a solution that is an answer option.

Example: 4 2 3 – x

Options: 1; 2; 3; 4; 9

**3. Non-Verbal Battery**

The Nonverbal Battery measures reasoning skills of students using geometric shapes and figures. To perform the test successfully, students must invent strategies for solving novel problems. They should be flexible in using these strategies and accurate in implementing them. It presents to students for solution of the most novel problems. The items on these tests use only geometric shapes and figures that have had little direct relationship to formal school instruction. The nonverbal battery is particularly suitable for obtaining an accurate estimate of development for students who have difficulty with reading or who have limited competency in English. The tests in the nonverbal battery are between 15 and 25 questions each and students are given ten minutes for each test. The 3 sub-tests are given below.

I. Figure Classification

II. Figure Analogies

III. Figure Analysis

**I. Figure Classification**

In this test, the student will be given 3 geometrical figures that are particular as instructed by. They are given 3 answer options and 5 pictures to select from. They are instructed to decide which figure goes best with the 3 answer options. Example: The student will be given 3 items that are odd shaped but each one has 4 sides and is black __.

Options: a black circle; a black triangle; a 4 sided white object; a black 4 sided object; six-sided white object.

**II. Figure Analogies**

Here, the student will be given 3 figures. The first 2 figures go together; the third figure goes with one of the answer options. Example: The first 2 figures are a large square that goes together with a small square. The 2^{nd} pair is to go together the same way that the first 2 figures go together. For the 2^{nd} pair you are given a large circle.

Options: a small triangle; a large circle; a small square; a small circle; and a large rectangle.

**III. Figure Analysis**

Here, the student will be shown how a square piece of dark paper is folded and where holes are punched in it. The student has to figure out how the paper will look when it is unfolded. Example: If a dark piece of paper is folded in the center from top to bottom and a hole is punched in the bottom right hand corner, what will the piece of paper look like when it is unfolded?

Options: A) one hole in the bottom right side corner; B) one hole in the bottom right side corner and one hole in the top right side corner; C) one hole in the top right side corner; D) one hole in the bottom right side corner and one hole in the bottom left side corner; E) one hole in the bottom right side corner and one hole in the top left side corner.

The students who will score more than 85% will be eligible for Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) Reading & Math tests and the students who will score 97% or more in all 3 areas (aptitude, achievement-reading and math) will continue to be screened in social studies and science. Parents can access **Cogat Composite Score** from website.

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